From there, overland routes led to the Mediterranean coasts. Spain's Juan de Cavallon leads the first successful Costa Rican colonisers The known means of measuring longitude were so inexact, however, that the line of demarcation could not in practice be determined see J.
Portuguese in Asia[ edit ] The effort to colonize and maintain territories scattered around the entire coast of Africa and its surrounding islands, Brazil, India and Indic territories such as in Sri LankaMalaysiaJapanChinaIndonesia and Timor was a challenge for a population of only one million.
Please help improve this section or discuss this issue on the talk page. He was curious about the world; he was interested in new navigational aids and better ship design and was eager to test them; he was also a Crusader and hoped that, by sailing south and then east along the coast of Africa, Arab power in North Africa could be attacked from the rear.
Under John III r. During his reign, the Portuguese became the first Europeans to make contact with both China, under the Ming Dynastyand Japan, during the Muromachi period see Nanban trade.
Although Spain continues to claim land in South America, a large region remains outside its empire. The traders, for the most part Spaniards, established land portages from harbours on the Caribbean to harbours on the west coast of Central and South America; from the Pacific coast ports of the Americas, they then set a course westward to the Philippines.
They also went about creating relations with the Africans and Indians in different ways. The Hanseatic Leaguea confederation of merchant guilds and their towns in northern Germany along the North Sea and Baltic Sea, was instrumental in commercial development of the region.
During the great plague of Lisbon inSebastian sent for doctors from Seville to help the Portuguese doctors fight the plague. Around the turn of the seventeenth century, Spanish settlers moved into the Southwest, establishing the colony of Santa Fe in Thus John "the Perfect," as he was called, assured the supremacy of the Crown.
Lawrence estuary and Hudson Bay. Courtesy of the trustees of the British Museum; photograph, J. As a seafaring people in the south-westernmost region of Europethe Portuguese became natural leaders of exploration during the Middle Ages.
Peninsular India on which Cananor and Calicut are named is shown; although too small, it is, however, recognizable. During their voyage they discovered the land to which they gave the name of Labrador lavrador, farmer — First boats fitted with cannon doors and topsails.
Treaty of Tordesillas The Tordesilhas Treaty meridian purple and the later Maluku Islands antimeridian greenset at the Treaty of Zaragoza Shortly after Columbus's return from what would later be called the "West Indies", a division of influence became necessary to avoid conflict between the Spanish and Portuguese.
Though having strong political implications, their journeys left no detailed accounts.
In Pope Nicholas V issued the bull Romanus Pontifex reinforcing the previous Dum Diversasgranting all lands and seas discovered beyond Cape Bojador to King Afonso V of Portugal and his successors, as well as trade and conquest against Muslims and pagans, initiating a mare clausum policy in the Atlantic.
Many Portuguese held a popular belief in the existence of Prester John, a semi-legendary Christian monarch, who was believed to be holding out against surrounding Muslim forces somewhere in Africa. The Spanish used the Indians that were left, putting them to work in mines and had traded gold and silver with them.
One ship attempted, but failed, to return across the Pacific. The Zambeziin south-central Africa, was not known at all until, in the midth century, the Scottish missionary-explorer David Livingstone crossed the Kalahari from the south, found Lake Ngamiand, hearing of populous areas farther north, came upon the river in midcourse.
The land explored by Columbus on his third voyage and by Vespucci and de Ojeda in is shown at the bottom left of the map as a promontory of a great northern bulge of a continent extending far to the south. He sets a Line of Demarcation, which divides the non-European world into two zones.
Finding, as he said, that the liberality of former kings had left the Crown "no estates except the high roads of Portugal," he determined to crush the feudal nobility and seize its territories. Lecture 2: The Age of Discovery: Introduction -- The mid-to-late 15th century has quite rightly been called the AGE OF EXPLORATION and Discovery.
It was an age in which European sailors and ships left the coastal waters of the Old World and embarked on. The European Voyages of Exploration: Portugal Scholars typically date the European Age of Exploration, or the Age of Discovery, During the Age of Exploration, Portugal was primarily a trading empire with vulnerable to attack from Spain’s imperial rivals—England, France, and the Netherlands.
As a result of the Iberian Union, Portugal. Its utter and famous defeat left England unchallenged as the major sea power in the world.
Early Exploration and Colonization. England's early endeavors in the Western Hemisphere trailed those of Spain and France, but included the following major ventures: John Cabot was sent by Henry VII in search for the Northwest Passage to India.
These years were largely those of the Omayyad Amirs and Caliphs, who may be said to have presided over the Golden Age of Islâmic Spain. The suprisingly rapid decline of the Omayyads in the 11th century quickly led to complete political fragmentation and to grave vulnerability to the rising Christian Kingdoms.
European exploration, exploration of regions of Earth for scientific, commercial, religious, military, and other purposes by Europeans, beginning about the 4th century bce.
The motives that spur human beings to examine their environment are many. Strong among them are the satisfaction of curiosity, the pursuit of trade, the spread of religion, and the desire for security and political power.
Ponce de Leon claimed Florida for Spain inand Hernando de Soto led a Spanish exploration of the southeastern United States indiscovering the Mississippi River.
InSpain established the first successful European settlement in North America—a fortress in St. Augustine, Florida.Age of exploration spain portugal england